"It is not only Indian culture.It is Prophet Muhammed Musthafa's (Saw) culture" Muhammad(P.B.U.H.) told that;
“ Two groups amongst My Ummah would be such, to whom Allah has freed from fire; One group would attack India & the Second would be that who would accompany Isa Ibn-e-Maryam(A.S.)”. (There is no options suddenly convert to islam)
Sorry I can't help you.there is no options. because there is no God.but Allah. definitely, Allah will Victory when ? Where ? How ? I don't know.but I know Allah will Victory
Chapter 1: The virtues of the Companions of the Prophet (saws), and any Muslim who enjoyed the company of the Prophet (saws) or saw him, is regarded as one of his Companions (raa).
The Prophet (saws) was the best of creation who entrusted his knowledge to the best of generations the Sahaba (raa). Any Muslim who enjoyed the company of the Prophet (saws) or saw him is regarded as one of his Companions (raa).
Narrated ‘Imrãn ibn Husain (raa) Allah’s Messenger (saws) said, “The best of my followers are those living in my century (generation), then those coming after them and then those coming after the latter”.
‘Imrãn added, “I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three centuries (generations) after his century (generation), then the Prophet (saws) added, ‘There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to give witness, and they will be dishonest and not trustworthy, and they will vow and will not fulfill their vows; and fatness will appear among them.'”
[See Vol. 3, Hadith No.2651]
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3650, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
The Sahaba, My Favorite Team, Companions of the Prophet, Best of Generations
Many people have their favorite sports team. A collection of men or women who join together to compete for the top prize. Many fans devote a life time studying these men and women and sharing their knowledge of their favorite team highlights along with details an accomplishments of their favorite players.
As a Muslim I too have a favorite team. A group of men and women that have achieved some of the greatest accomplishments in history. They inspired generations through their trials, sound wisdom and compassion and we spoken of as the Best of Generations by the “Best of Creation.” The Prophet (saws).
The Century of the Prophet and the Best Generation
The Prophet (swt) was the best of creation who entrusted his knowledge to the best of generations the Sahaba (raa). Similarly narrated by ‘Imrãn ibn Husain, hadith 3650.
Chapter 1: The virtues of the Companions of the Prophet (saws), and any Muslim who enjoyed the company of the Prophet (saws) or saw him, is regarded as one of his Companions (raa).
Narrated ‘Abdullãh (raa) The Prophet (swt) said, “The best amongst the people are those living in my century (generation), and then those coming after them, and then those coming after the latter. Then there will come some people whose witness will precede their oaths, and their oaths will precede their witness.
Ibrahim, a sub-narrator said, “We were beaten for taking oaths by saying: ‘I bear witness by the Name of Allah’ or ‘by the Covenant of Allah’, when we were still children.”
[See Vol. 3, footnote of Hadith No.2652]
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3651, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
^They will be ready to bear witness or take oaths (falsely) readily as required.
Aba Bakr (‘Abdullah bin Abu Quhafa At-Taimi) – Virtue of an Emigrant
Virtues are behaviours of high moral standard that we all strive to possess. There have been many in history with such characteristics and some have been blessed more than others.
Chapter 2: The Virtues of the Emigrants (i.e., Muhajirun) and Their Merits.
Among them is Abu Bakr (‘Abdullah bin Abu Quhafa At-Taimi) (raa).
The Statement of Allah (awj):
“(And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking bounties from Allah and to please Him. And helping Allah (i.e. helping His religion – Islamic Monotheism), and his Messenger (Muhammad (saws)) such are indeed the truthful (to what they say) .”
Surat Al-Ĥashr (The Exile) [59:8]
And also the Statement of Allah (awj)
“If you help him (Muhammad (saws)) not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muhammad (saws) and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, and he (saws) said to his companion (Abu Bakr): “Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us.” Then Allah sent down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquility, peace, etc.) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while it was the Word of Allah that became the uppermost, and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.”
Surat At-Tawbah (The Repentance) [9:40]
‘Aishah , Aba Sa’id and Ibn ‘Abbas (raa) said, “Abu Bakr was with the Prophet in the cave (of the mountain called Ath-Thur at Makkah)
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanChapter 2, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
Chapter 2: The Virtues of the Emigrants (i.e., Muhajirun) and Their Merits.
Narrated Al-Bara’ (raa): Abu Bakr (raa) bought a (camel) saddle from ‘Azib for thirteen Dirham. Aba Bakr (raa) said to ‘Azib, “Tell Al-Bard’ to carry the saddle for me ‘Azib said, “No, unless you relate to me what happened to you and Allah’s Messenger (saws) when you left Makkah while Al-Mushrikün
were in search of you.”
Abu Bakr (raa) said, “We left Makkah and we traveled continuously for that night and the following day till it was midday. I looked (around) searching for shade to take as shelter, and suddenly I came across a rock, and found a little shade there. So I cleaned the place and spread a bed for the Prophet (saws) in the shade and said to him, ‘Lie down, O Allah’s Messenger.’ So the Prophet (saws) lay down and I went out, looking around to see if there was any person pursuing us. Suddenly I saw a shepherd driving his sheep towards the rock, seeking what we had already sought from it. I asked him, ‘To whom do you belong, O boy” He said, ‘I belong to a man from Quraish. He named the man and I recognized him. I asked him, ‘Is there any milk with your sheep?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Will you then milk (some) for us?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ Then I asked him to tie the legs of one of the ewe and clean its udder, and then ordered him to clean his hands from dust. Then the shepherd cleaned his hands by striking his hands against one another. After doing so, he milked a small amount of milk.
I used to keep for Allah’s Messenger (saws); a leather water-container, the mouth of which was covered with a piece of cloth. I poured water on the milk container till its lower part was cold. Then I took the milk to the Prophet , whom I found awake. I said to him, ‘Drink, O Allah’s Messenger.’ So he drank till I became pleased. Then I said, ‘It is time for us to move, O Allah’s Messenger!’ He said, ‘Yes.’ So we set out while the people (i.e., Quraish Mushnkün) were searching for us, but none found us except Suraqa bin Malik bin Ju’shum who was riding his horse. I said, ‘These are our pursuers who have found us, O Allah’s Messenger!’ He said, ‘Do not be sad (or afraid), surely, Allah is with us.'”
[See Vol. 4, Hadifh No.3615]
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3652, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
Allah is With Us, The Prophet and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr as-Saddiq (raa) was a man who had the best relationship with the Messenger of Allah (saws). He was the first man to accept Islam and the only man to make hijra (migration) with the Prophet (saws). Their journey was difficult and at times Abu Bakr (raa) feared for the Prophet (saws), but there was nothing to fear. They had a Companion far greater than any other and He is the best of Protectors, Al-Wālī.
Chapter 2: The Virtues of the Emigrants (i.e., Muhajirun) and Their Merits.
Narrated Abu Bakr (raa) I said to the Prophet (saws) while I was in the cave, “If any of them should look under his feet, he would see us.” He said, “O Abu Bakr! What do you think of two (persons) the third of whom is Allah (awj)?”
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3653, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
What Do You Think of Two, The Third of Whom is Allah
Even the greatest of men struggle with fear. Fear is an affliction that eats at the hearts of mankind causing us to forget that there is a Protector greater than any, If He (awj) is with us nothing can harm us accept by His (awj) will.
Chapter 3: The saying of the Prophet “Close the gates (in the Mosque), except the gate of Abu Bakr.” 
Narrated Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, (raa) “Allah’s Messenger (saws) addressed the people saying, Allah gave a choice to one of (His) slaves to choose this world or what is with Him. The slave chose what is with Allah.”
Abu Bakr (raa) wept, and we were astonished at his weeping caused by what the Prophet (saws) mentioned as to a slave (of Allah) who had been offered a choice, (we learned later on) that Allah’s Messenger (saws) himself was the person who was given the choice, and that Abu Bakr (raa) knew more than us.
Allah’s Messenger (saws) added Abu Bakr (raa) has favoured me much with his company and property (wealth) more than anybody else. If I were to take a Khalil  other than my Lord, I would have taken Abu Bakr (raa), but the Islamic brotherhood and friendship is sufficient. Close all the gates in the mosque except the gate of Abu Bakr (raa).”
[See Vol. 1, Hadith No. 466]
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3654, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
^This is narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (raa) on the authority of the Prophet (saws).
^Khalil: This word in Arabic means the one whose love is mixed with one’s soul, it is superior than a friend or a beloved. The Prophet (saws) had only one Khalil i.e., Allah but he had many friends.
Close the Gates (in the Mosque) Except The Gate of Abu Bakr
How many times can we mention the virtues of a single man before we recognize his status? How about when the best of creation, Allah’s Messenger bestows the honour of calling such a man his dear and intimate friend. Will we then accept the status of such a man?
Chapter 4: The merits of Abu Bakr (raa) as next to those of the Prophet (saws) (in excellence).
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar, (raa) “We used to compare the people as to who was better during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (saws). We used to regard Abu Bakr as the best, then ‘Umar, and then ‘Uthmãn (saws).
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3655, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
The Best Next to the Prophet, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmãn
Life is full of comparisons: what car is the best, what is the best job to have and who is the best at this and who is the best at that. We pass strangers in the street and we take notice of the way they may dress, the way they walk or how they may talk and we think to our selves to I look like that, do I talk like that? These things may seem important at the time but they are usually a frivolous list, like the stranger in the street, that when they pass their value is gone. If we change our focus and begin to compare the character and virtue of those around us, we may just find something truly useful.
Chapter 5: The saying of the Prophet (saws) “If! were to take a Khalil…”
AbU Sa’id said that Ibn ‘Abbas (raa) narrated, the Prophet (saws) said, “If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken Abu Bakr (raa), but he is my brother and my companion (in Islam).”
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3656, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
Abu Bakr As Sadiqq, The Intimate Friend of The Prophet
Companions come and go, but to find some one truly worthy of granting the title “friend” is a rare thing indeed. We can spend our entire life and not have even one lasting relationship let alone someone we would call a dear and intimate friend. So when the Prophet (saws) expresses and considers one to be such a person, a khalil, then they must truly be a person of unique character.
Chapter 5: The saying of the Prophet (saws) “If! were to take a KhaliI…”
Narrated Ayyub ; The Prophet (saws), said, “If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken him (i.e., Abu Bakr (raa)) as a Khalil (intimate friend), but the Islamic brotherhood is better.”
The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin KhanHadith 3657, Volume 5, Book 62 The Virtues and the Merits of the Companions of the Prophet
Khalil (The Greatest Friend), But Islamic Brootherhood is Far Better
The qualities of our companions are what help us to shape a beneficial path ahead or if we do not choose those we call friend carefully we may find ourselves traveling a disastrous road with the only end being off a cliff. Show choose wisely those who encourage ad enjoin good and forbid evil.
A prestigious branch of faith, through which it is carried to perfection, is Ihsaan, as the Holy Prophet’sPeace & Blessings be upon himtradition describes it, and ‘Tazkia’ as the Holy Qur’aan states, and Tasawwuf as it is known in common utterance. In plain words it means the creation of real living consciousness of Allah. A consciousness so strong and vivid as if one had actually seen Him, sweeping aside every trace of doubt and uncertainty. When this consciousness becomes complete, it creates a bond of loyalty with Allah, that fills the heart with His remembrance, His love and His intense awareness of His Might. It becomes the essence, the ruling spirit of one’s existence, of all of one’s thoughts, actions, in prayer, morality, social behaviour, monetary dealings and so forth. All that one does is then inspired, governed and regulated by this all-embracing faith and overpowering realisation. One’s external life is completely pervaded by this internal feeling.
Ihsaan, Tazkia or Tasawwuf, thus represents the very pinnacle of faith. It is the supreme standard of one’s spiritual state. One is perfect in his faith or not according to the measures with which he is blessed with this wealth.
The famous tradition of the Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon himconsisting of the dialogue between him and the angel Jibraeel alaihis salaam is a pointer in this direction. The manner in which the term Ihsaan occurs in it after Imaan and Islam testifies to the truth of the assertion that Ihsaan works the ultimate stage in the evolution of faith.
Briefly the tradition says that one day the Holy ProphetPeace & Blessings be upon himwas sitting with some of the companions when Jibraeel alaihis salaam came in, disguised as a traveller from a far off place. He took his seat close to the Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon himand began to ask him some questions. The first was, "What is Imaan (faith)?" And the second, "What is Islam?" The Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon himgave suitable replies to his questions. Then he asked, "What is Ihsaan?" The Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon himanswered, "Ihsaan means to worship Allah as if one is actually seeing Him or being seen by Him." In other words, the stage of Ihsaan is reached when the awareness of Allah becomes the greatest reality of one’s life and one’s every act is performed under a constant sense of His presence, but although man cannot see Allah, Allah does see him.
This condition is known amongst the Sufis (Muslim Mystics) as Huzoori (presence) and Nisbat (affinity) and when anyone is described by them as Sahib-e-Nisbat, it denotes that he has achieved it in a considerable way.
When this state of spirituality is achieved, a person becomes permanently attuned towards Allah, and becomes immune to all kinds of doubts and misgivings concerning His Being.
As a natural outcome of this all pervading effulgence of faith. In this all-embracing sense of divine presence, all other ties and attachments are merged and they lose their identity in one great allegiance to the Almighty. All internal and external acts such as love, friendship, enmity, social dealings and business transactions are carried out for His sake alone.
A tradition of the Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon himon the subject of Ihsaan mentions, "A person whose state may be that, when he loves, he loves for the sake of Allah, when he hates he hates for the sake of Allah, when he withholds his hand from giving, he withholds it for the sake of Allah, he has attained perfection in his faith."
It was for this very reason that the blessed Companions radiyallahu anhum sacrificed all that they had, life, family, wealth and everything else. Why? What had they seen? It was because of this very simple fact that they had acquired absolute faith in Allah through the auspicious company of the Holy Prophet Peace & Blessings be upon him. How did men (saints) like, Hazrat Hasan Basri, Junaid Baghdadi, Abdul Qadir Jilani, Khawaja Bahauddin Naqshbandi, and saints of the last 3 centuries such as Mujaddid Alfi Sani, Khawaja Baqi Billah, Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and countless other devoted men of Allah, who were adorned with this virtue of Ihsaan, climb to such greatness, and achieve such spiritual heights.
Anyone possessing the briefest acquaintance with this luminous link in the chain of sufistic achievements will agree that what they have attained has come to them through no other passage.
Therefore how can we possibly doubt the soundness and efficiency of a system that has produced such splendid men of faith, who may be justly described as the spiritual blossom and glory of Islam.
It is evident that anyone who flourishes himself as a ‘peer’ (spiritual guide) is surely not worthy and capable of being taken as a guide and a mentor.
However, some sections of the ummah have been guilty of error and folly in varying measures and both of a conceptual and practical nature - in the field of Tasawwuf, one may find many innovations in faith itself. The world knows and accepts that there are both fake and genuine amongst religious teachers and spiritual masters, as amongst political leaders, physicians and so forth, but to distinguish the true from the false can be done without much difficulty. The experts who are blessed in this field with a wide understanding of Shari’ah, such as Shah Waliullah Dehalvi and Hazrat Fakhr-Uddin of recent times, who laid down, in the light of Qur’aan and Hadith and their own experience and knowledge, how to recognise men with an awakened heart and an evolving soul.
The elementary test is that, besides being Allah-fearing and having strict observance of Shari’ah, their state should be such that in their company people may be reminded of Allah and the love for the material world may weaken and the love of Allah and the solitude for the eternal life in the Hereafter may be embedded in the heart when associating with them. These qualities should also be clearly manifest in their predecessors and disciples.
Tasawwuf, the Arabic name for Sufism, is one of the most disputed aspects of deen, and possibly one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted. Many seem to be portraying it as contradicting the Shari’ah and the truth of Islam. In reality, it is only the opposite. We believe that the name ‘Tasawwuf’ was designated to represent the inner purification of the heart and the god-thirstiness of the soul, which cannot be segregated from the Shari’ah, because they are amongst the lementary requirements for the ultimate salvation. Tasawwuf, in it’s most pure and pristine form, only means the rectification of the heart from all the deficiencies and filth that occasionally overcome it due to the abundance of sins and shortcomings committed by the heart internally and by the organs externally, and the beautifying of the heart through pleasant qualities and grand exhilaration in the love of Allah which are desired by Shara’a as well. The highest rank of that is ‘al Ihsaan’.
Therefore, Tasawwuf is only restricted to the above-mentioned two points and nothing else. Period. It starts from the ‘Tazkiyah’ mentioned in the Qur’aan where Allah states,
“He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him) from among themselves, reciting to them His verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the book (this Qur’aan, Islamic Laws and Islamic Jurisprudence) and ‘Al-Hikmah’ (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him). And verily, they had been before in manifest error.” (Surah Jumu’ah 2)
And where Allah says, “Indeed he succeeds who purifies himself (i.e. obeys and performs all what Allah ordered by following the true faith of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds).” (Surah Shams 9)
There are many more verses of the same nature.
'Al-Ihsaan' (Hadith of Jibreel )
Similarly, it also stems from ‘Ihsaan’ mentioned in the Sunnah of the Prophetpeace and blessings be upon him. In the Hadith of Jibreel , which is synonymously known as ‘The mother of Sunnah’ and ‘The mother of Traditions’, the angel divided the complete deen into three major departments, namely Iman, Islam and Ihsaan, when he demanded the answers for the questions, “What is Iman?”, “What is Islam?” and finally “What is Ihsaan?”, clearly distinguishing one from the other. After his departure, the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him did not only affirm to what he had inquired as the basic elements of Deen, rather verbally pronounced these words to his Companions: “He was Jibreel. He had come to teach you your Deen.”
The meaning of Iman, as established by the answer given by the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him in this tradition, is the department pertaining to the tenets and beliefs of a person in the context of his religious doctrine, which are not only restricted to his interior, but manifest themselves in his exterior actions. There is absolutely no doubt that it is a grand department of Deen, rather it is the most important faculty of Deen. The scholars who mastered this field named it ‘Ilm-at-Tawheed’ (The science of monotheism), ‘Ilm-al-Kalam’ (The science of scholastic philosophy) and ‘Ilm-al-Aqaid’ (The science of religious doctrine). These names have remained undisputed throughout centuries referring to this particular field of knowledge.
Second comes the notion of Islam in this tradition. Islam is only relevant to the actions carried out by the human structural body, in any of the vocal, physical and/or financial forms. This field too, comprises of the basics of Islamic concept of worship expressed through external organs. The masters who excelled in this field reserved the name ‘Ilm-ul-Fiqh’ (Science of Jurisprudence) as a reference to it.
Then, finally, comes the field of ‘Al-Ihsaan’. It is a knowledge dedicated to the inner state and condition of the heart and soul, experienced manifestly when one fulfils the first two points i.e. Islam and Iman. It serves as a benchmark to check the amount of one’s sincerity in worship, humbleness towards the Lord and His creation, loyalty in devotion to Him etc. It is also an efficient medium to know the altitude of one’s Iman in its firmness, vastness, profoundness and might. And Tasawwuf, like the previous two cases, is nothing but a technical term allocated by the experts of this field merely to represent these facts.
Therefore, the doubts raised by some against Tasawwuf just because it is named so (which they also categorise as an innovation) is nothing else than pure defiance of the rules unanimously set for academic criticism, for it is undisputedly agreed upon that technical terms of any topic are beyond the scope of being debated upon.
Moulana Nadwi rahamtullahi alihi - on technical terms
The idea of neglecting this important and elementary aspect of Deen just because it is called ‘Tasawwuf’ is mere ignorance, hence worthy of condemnation. This point is clearly elucidated by the great philosopher and thinker of Islam, Sheikh Abul-Hasan Ali Al-Nadwi rahamtullahi alaihi, in one of his works wherein he writes under the title ‘Fault committed by the technical terms towards the facts represented by them’. He says:
“Verily, the names of activities/objects prevailed on the tongues of the laymen have had a fairly significant impact in the misinterpretation of the concepts of those actions/objects. This fault is evident in all fields where technical terms have been applied. These terms, while representing the true meaning sought by them, also create a whole new multitude of meanings understandable from the mentioned term. These alien meanings, since they do not represent the actual intended meaning, create doubts and uncertainties in the minds of the scantily knowledge-acquainted people and which further leads the more concerned ones of them to total neglect, and in some cases the total condemnation, of the whole concept including the version desired and
meant by the terminology.”
This sums up to the upheaval of ‘fiercely fought and hot, but at the same time utterly false’ debates based entirely on falsehood. On the other hand, if we just ignore these so-called terms and names and glance back at our prestigious past, in an attempt to trace the availability, or even possibility for that matter, of this faculty of knowledge in the early days of Islam, to trace the response given or the stance adopted by the early men of this religion regarding this aspect or how they pronounced these meanings in their rather simplistic words, this whole problem would be solved and both the parties would compromise on the veracity and legitimacy of these so-called innovations.
Tasawwuf - falsely debated
Among these dubious terminologies is also the pure knowledge of the soul and conscience, Tasawwuf. It has endured the disparagement of many in the past and is still held today as one of the most debated issues within our circles. Questions are forwarded and explanations are demanded regarding the etymological origins of the word. Some assert it to be from ‘Soof’ (from the Arabic for wool, so named because of the enthusiasm of the early ‘Sufiya’ in wearing woollen fabrics as a sign to their total abstinence from mundane desires) while others derive it from ‘Safaa’ (Arabic for purity). Some others see it from ‘Sufw’ (the Arabic for uniqueness). Some go to the extent that they trace its origins back to the ancient Greek word ‘Sufia’ which means wisdom. The second argument raised is regarding the time this word was introduced as part of Deen. Those who argue this point allege that this word is never found in the Qur’aan, in the prophetic traditions, the early years of Islam or in the recorded wordings of the Companions. They further believe that everything of such a state is unconditionally a definite and undeniable innovation forged to misrepresent Islam and twist its teachings to serve personal whims and desires. Certain individuals and organisations fuel these arguments whose ultimate motto has been arousing disputes contradicting the trend followed by the Ummah unanimously for centuries. This way of conduct was of no help to the necessities of the Ummah; rather it provided the anti-Islamic propaganda machines with rich material to attack Islam.
On the other hand, if we just ignored this terminology which was originated sometime in the second century A.H. to symbolize the essentiality of Tasawwuf as part of Deen and directly sought clarification of this point from the Qur’aan and Hadith and in lives of the Companions, we would have unquestionably found them explicitly confirming this aspect. We find the Qur’aan emphasizing this point not only as an important requirement for the completion of Deen, rather as one of the four major motives of the prophethood of Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him elaborated in the verse:
“He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him) from amongst themselves, reciting to them His verses, purifying them, and teaching them the Book (this Qur’aan, Islamic laws and Islamic Jurisprudence) and ‘al-Hikmah’ (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship etc. of the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him). And verily, they had been before in manifest error.” (Surah Jumu’ah 2)
The word in this ‘ayah that symbolises ‘Tasawwuf’ is ‘Tazkiyah’, which means purifying the inner self from sins and misdemeanours, whims and caprices, evil and wickedness etc. and at the same time enhancing it with the best of qualities. This ‘Tazkiyah’ was so apparently visible in the lives, the ways, the actions and the deeds of the Companions that history is and always has been and will always remain incapable to provide us with people of their calibre, at least in this field, in any given time, place and condition.
The concept of ‘Tasawwuf’ is not only verified by the Qur’aan, but we also find the Sunnah stressing impressively on a level in subjugation to God far higher than those of Islam and Iman, and which is, in the context of Sunnah, is referred to as Al-Ihsaan.
This detail is ascertained by the Hadith of Jibreel , wherein the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him defines the concept of Al-Ihsaan in these words: “Ihsaan is that you worship your Lord as if you are seeing Him, and if you cannot envisage that you are seeing Him, then He is definitely watching you.”
Shari'ah - a blend of the exterior and interior
The Shari’ah and whatever has been preserved from the words and actions of the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him can easily be divided into two evident categories:
1) His outward actions and deeds and externally visible characteristics, for example, his fashion of standing and sitting, eating and drinking, sleeping and awakening, his Ruku’ (bowing) and Sujud (prostrating), his recitation of the Qur'ân and remembrance of Allah, his supplications and his invocations etc. All these features have been painstakingly preserved by the scholars of the Prophetic sciences, both the ‘Muhaddithin’ (the Traditionalists) and the ‘Fuqaha’ (the Jurists). These prominent scholars of their time have done a great favour upon the general masses of the Ummah. May Allah grant them with the best of rewards for all the labours and pains they undertook towards this cause.
2) His inner situation of the heart and the soul while executing the above mentioned category of acts. These attributes would always accompany him whenever and wherever he would be; whether he would be standing or sitting, bowing or prostrating to his Lord, supplicating and invocating unto Him, whether he would be in the peace and calmth of his quarters or within the mayhem and havoc of the battlefields; in essence, they would accompany him under all the circumstances that occurred to him.
These qualities were those of sincerity and contentedness, patience and trust in God, continence and renunciation of mundane desires, altruism and generosity, respect and modesty, total submission and utmost humility whilst in prayer, humbleness in supplications, complete indifference towards the worldly beauties, relinquishment of this world for the forthcoming one, craving for reunion with God and many more similar states of ecstasy, which are to Shari’ah as the soul is to the body.
These qualities further develop under themselves many detailed and minute rulings that then appear as a total new faculty of knowledge. When the knowledge that refers to the external characteristics of a practicing Muslim is called ‘Fiqh-ud-Dhaahir’ (the jurisprudence of the exterior), then this faculty of knowledge rightfully reserves the privilege to be named ‘Fiqh-ul-Baatin’ (the jurisprudence of the interior).
Tasawwuf - or what?
It would have been more beneficial for the whole of the Islamic Community if we named this glorious field of knowledge, which undertakes the strenuous task of rectifying and purifying the inner carnal soul and which also sponsors the enhancement and embellishment of the same with the best of qualities, as the field of ‘Tazkiyah’ (as referred to in the Qur'ân), as the field of ‘Al-Ihsaan’ (as referred to in the Hadith) or as ‘Fiqh-ul-Baatin’ (as this name expresses its contents better). If this had been the case, there would have absolutely not remained any point of argument and debate between the two groups on the grounds of the legal status of this important aspect of a truly practicing Muslim’s Deen. The need was to concentrate on the aim and objective of the subject more than debating over the means and methods, as the latter do change and constant development in their effectiveness does arise along with the change in time, space and subjects. If this barrier of a specific terminology had been removed, then there would not have remained any room for false doubts and misunderstandings, because it is a well known fact that Muslims all over the globe do believe in the status referred to as ‘Tazkiyah’ and ‘Ihsaan’ to be the essence of all religious activities, rather the core of a sincere Muslim’s entire life. They also unanimously hold that true peace of heart and tranquillity of the soul – in their purest meanings - cannot be achieved in life, both social and private, but only through establishing this pivotal
facet of Deen.
External factors innovated in Tasawwuf
The error and lapse committed towards this disagreement was not only of the specified terminology, rather many external factors, which were innovated and never were a part of the original and pure ‘Tasawwuf’ – served as active barricades for many concerned Muslims deterring and depriving them from this momentous and critical phase of religion. These factors are, it has to be sadly acknowledged, the dark phases of our glorious Islamic History which every Muslim has a right to condemn as they contradict the pure Islamic doctrine of belief. But, the question here arises that does this mean that this topic should be entirely neglected just for this reason? The answer is in negation. We cannot turn a blind eye towards a theme enjoined in both the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and further stressed upon by the Shara’a. We are under a strict obligation to abide by and follow that version of it which doesn’t challenge the pure monotheistic nature of Islamic dogma. Since its role in establishing a loving, peaceful and harmonious Islamic society, for which we all yearn and strive today, is a major one, the absence of this essence in our society has resulted in the deplorable deteriorating situation of Muslims as individuals and as a whole nation and community
Ibn Taymiyyah and others on Tasawwuf
The righteous Ulema and religious scholars have always acknowledged and affirmed the necessity of the true from of ‘Tasawwuf’. Some excerpts from the monumental Islamic jurisprudic encyclopaedia of the reputed scholar, Ibn Taimiyyah rahmatullahi alihi, regarding the positiveness and necessity of ‘Tasawwuf’. He says: “ Verily, Sulook (a synonym for Tazkiyah, Ihsaan or Tasawwuf) is the path ordained by Allah and His Messenger peace and blessings be upon him, which encompasses the beliefs, devotion, worship and ethics of a person. And all this is clarified in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Therefore, it is the provision no true Mu’min can do without.” (Vol. 19 Pg. 273)
He also states: “In Sulook, there are some points debated by the Mashaikh, but there is abundant evidence in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah substantiating the stance adopted by the majority of the scholars, for the precepts of Sulook are of the same category as the Islamic doctrinal code, all elucidated and resolved in a crystal-clear fashion in both the divine sources of Islamic
Theology.” (Vol. 19 Pg. 274)
We find him uttering these words in his discourses: “…And similarly, whosoever bases his devotion, worship, and actions, relevant both to his inner status and his outer execution of deeds, on the foundation of pure Faith and Sunnah, and on the path of the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him and his Companions radiallahu anhum, then without any doubt, he has achieved the pathway laid down by the Prophethood. And this is the very path the righteously guided scholars of Deen follow.”
In his enlightening speeches, he goes on to explain: “All the actions of heart and soul, called ‘Maqamat’ (levels of perfection) and ‘Ahwaal’ (states of illumination) - for example, the love for Allah and His Prophet peace and blessings be upon him, sincerity of intentions in His worship, ultimate trust unto Him, sense of total gratitude for Him, utmost patience and absolute contentment on His decree, the equivalent mélange of paramount fear of Him, unsurpassable anticipation of his all-embracing mercy and all other similar conditions that occur to a living human soul in regards to his Master and Creator – are in their entity, incumbent on all humankind, especially believers. Its attainment is compulsory upon the people according to their stages; in depth for the people of distinction and basically for the normal layman, for the hearts and souls of all humans are not the same in their capability to achieve perfection through the medium of these ‘Maqamat’ and ‘Ahwaal’.”
Sheikh Moulana Muhammad Manzoor Ahmed No’mani rahmatullahi alaihi quotes Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab rahmatullahi alaihi commenting on Tasawwuf in his book ‘Dia’ayat Mukaththafah dhidd Ash-Sheikh Muhammad…’(Pg. 85). The Sheikh has said: “We do not condemn the path of the Sufiya outright. We only assert that the keyword should be moderation. We agree to their practice provided it does not contradict the basic elementary tenets of Shari’ah.”
The essence of Tasawwuf
It is not foreign to the reflecting intellects that the above-mentioned qualities, which comprise of earnest faith, total Imaan, soul-rectification, ultimate submission, unparalleled adherence to the Sunnah and emulation of the Shari’ah as the only source of eternal bliss and salvation, form a vital and significant position of Imaan and therefore, their acquirement should be the goal and target of every Muslim. But the ways to their achievement have to differ, as in any other issue, depending upon many features like time, space, immediate surroundings and civilization. It is for this reason that the masters of this field have not restricted the accomplishment of this perfection to only one means and medium, rather they have advocated the point that a constant change in the means is always necessary, and hence always present. This fact in also noteworthy here that in the early period of the advent of Islam, the most simple and easy form of achieving this objective was, undisputedly, the companionship of the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him. No two will disagree on the rapid influence his companionship would have in the alteration of the lifestyle of an individual. It is unanimously agreed upon that the greatest of all Awliya-ullah (the friends of Allah) who came after the companions cannot reach the status of the farthest Companion of the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him in spiritual rank.
But when the nation and community of Islam got deprived of this golden kismet by the Prophet’s peace and blessings be upon him demise, his successors and the great well-wishers of the Ummah strived hard to find an alternative to fill this gap caused by his demise. After much thought and effort, they based, for many reasons well known to Lord and them, the result of their search on the companionship of the God-acquainted saints, the Awliya and on abundance of Zikr. They did not stop here, rather they also designed and preserved an organized method for this cause, which later came to be known as ‘Tasawwuf’ and ‘Sulook’. Although this was the best of means to achieve the intended goal, the fact that it was not the only one could not be denied. Complete Imaan (Faith) and ‘Ihtisaab’ (Anticipation of reward) when further consolidated by the constant surveillance of conscience and the soul and strict adherence to the Sunnah along with the study and propagation of religious sciences, preaching and publication of theological issues with love, sincerity and devotion, sending blessings and eulogies to the beloved Prophet peace and blessings be upon him in excess, working voluntarily for public welfare, fighting for the cause of Allah, enjoining god and forbidding evil etc. (provided that all this is done with the most earnest of intentions and not to gain worldly benefits through their way, which is sadly the case with some individuals apparently working for these causes) are also choice channels to acquire closeness to Allah and to attain the boundless ecstasy of His love.
Therefore, it is possible that the focused goal of two different methods and means might be the same and there is absolutely no doubt about it. There have been certain select souls in the past whose outward features illustrated that they were observing the final stage of ‘Ihsaan’, but at the same time hey were not known as adherents of a specific conventional Sufi order.
Repelling those who chose for themselves to isolate from the mainstream platform of ‘Tazkiyah’ and ‘Ihsaan’ and ignoring the difference of meanings arising from the contemporary usage of technical terminology, we find ourselves pursuing the grandly illuminated and enlightening path laid down by the Divine Benevolence for our ultimate success in this world as well as the hereafter. These are the pathways leading to eternal bliss and infinite salvation, peace and tranquillity. These are the absolute peaceways, the Subulas Salaam.
The authentic Tasawwuf and the real Sufiya'
Towards the conclusion of my humble endeavour, I feel obliged to clarify what we, the Ahl-us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah, classify as pure Tasawwuf. When we pronounce the word, we only represent the version in perfect harmony with the Qura’an and the Sunnah of the beloved Prophet peace and blessings be upon him, which was also followed by all our eminent pious predecessors and scholars. We do, though quite sadly, acknowledge the existence of certain groups and individuals, who have used this subject as a scapegoat for the fulfilment and nourishment of their carnal whims and desires, therefore, segregating themselves from the mainstream ‘Tasawwuf’. They have introduced many filthy, false and erroneous ideas into this field that contradict the bases of Shari’ah, thereby depriving it of its original beauty and glamour. These false beliefs include bowing to the ‘Sheikhs’ or the ‘Peers’, prostrating to the graves, dancing and singing etc. from which this blessed command of Allah is not only exempt, but is also strictly censorious and deprecatory of. We, the Ahl-us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah, vehemently denounce their evil practices as well
as their false innovations in the field of Tasawwuf.
Similarly, when making mention of the Mashaikh (masters of Tasawwuf) and Sufiya’, we only correspond to those are known to possess the true fear of Allah and pure love for Him and His Prophet peace and blessings be upon him; who wish to live their lives according to the Prophet’s peace and blessings be upon him lifestyle in all aspects and walks of life; who strive for and wish to pass their last breath in the state that their Lord is pleased with them. On the other hand, we severely disapprove of those who have decided for themselves the grandeurs of this world in trade of those pertaining to the hereafter. We rigidly loathe even comprising them under the category of the honoured title of ‘Sufism’.
The benefits of a Sheikh
(1) The noble and lofty qualities of the Sheikhs slowly devolve into the mureed.
(2) The mureed follows the Sheikh in character and habit.
(3) Attainment of joy and pleasure in the remembrance of Allah and worship.
(4) Increase in the desire to practise good deeds.
(5) The mureed's ability becomes manifest to him.
(6) Love for Allah increases.
These were few points showing the importance of Tasawwuf and the importance of a Sheikh. May Allah Taa'la give us the ability to reach the highest level of Ihsaan and have the correct intention to all actions we do.